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Unfortunately, however, the two systems were not always compatible. Foreign policy establishes goals, prescribes strategies, and sets the broad tactics to be used in their accomplishment.
It may employ secret agents, subversion, war, or other forms of violence as well as diplomacy to achieve its objectives.
Diplomacy is the principal substitute for the use of force or underhanded means in statecraft; it is how comprehensive national power is applied to the peaceful adjustment of differences between states.
It may be coercive (i.e., backed by the threat to apply punitive measures or to use force) but is overtly nonviolent.
To this end, diplomatic activity endeavours to maximize a group’s advantages without the risk and expense of using force and preferably without causing resentment.The purpose of foreign policy is to further a state’s interests, which are derived from geography, history, economics, and the distribution of international power.Safeguarding national independence, security, and integrity—territorial, political, economic, and moral—is viewed as a country’s primary obligation, followed by preserving a wide freedom of action for the state.The political leaders, traditionally of sovereign states, who devise foreign policy pursue what they perceive to be the national interest, adjusting national policies to changes in external conditions and technology.Primary responsibility for supervising the execution of policy may lie with the head of state or government, a cabinet or a nominally nongovernmental collective leadership, the staff of the country’s leader, or a minister who presides over the foreign ministry, directs policy execution, supervises the ministry’s officials, and instructs the country’s diplomats abroad.
For a discussion of the legal rules governing diplomatic negotiation and the preparation of treaties and other agreements, This was a golden era for diplomats and international lawyers.